 # Demand Forecasting at Amazon This is a post that I’ve been meaning to write for a while. Having worked on demand forecasting in the past, I was intrigued when I saw this paper posted on the arXiv pre-print archive from one of the research teams at Amazon.

Although it was obvious why Amazon would be interested in forecasting demand, I was intrigued that Amazon chose to use a state space model approach. About 6 months later I attended the ISBIS2018 conference, at which Lindsay Berry from Duke University presented this paper that also used a state-space model approach to modelling the demand for supermarket goods. I also subsequently became aware of this technical report from Ivan Svetunkov at Lancaster University’s Management School.

With three pre-prints on demand forecasting that all utilised a state-space modelling approach I thought it would be interesting to do a post summarizing the work from the Amazon team. I may get round to doing a further post on the other two pre-prints at a later date.

At this point it is worth explaining a bit about demand models in general. Demand models are statistical models that are usually built from 2-5yrs worth of historical sales data. A demand model enables us to forecast how many units of a product we will sell given the price of the product and a number of other variables. The models allow us to forecast a number of ‘what-if’ scenarios, e.g. what will happen to my sales if I reduce the product price by 20%? Ultimately, the demand model can enable us to determine what is the optimal price we should charge for a product depending on what business KPI we want to optimize. Some traditional approaches to demand modelling use a log-log model, with the log of the demand of an item being linear in the log of the price of the item. These models are of the Working-Leser type of demand models1,2. For goods with large demand volumes, a log-log model form will be a reasonable assumption as the natural quantum of demand (a single unit) is much smaller than the typical level of demand and so we can consider the demand of such goods as effectively being continuous random variables.

The actual problem the Amazon team tackled was forecasting of intermittent demand, i.e. for what are commonly called, ‘slow-moving goods’, whose pattern of sales are bursty. We might typically only sell, on average, less than say 10 units a week for these kinds of products. There may be no sales for a week or two, followed by a burst of sales concentrated in a few days. Snyder et al give a good modern review of the problem of intermittent demand forecasting3.

For such products, the traditional log-log type demand models can perform poorly, as we are dealing with products that sell only a few units per time period. However, there is no consensus approach to modelling such products, but this means it is an area ripe for novel and innovative methods. The  paper by Seeger et al  combines 3 interesting ideas,

1. A multi-stage model – this means decomposing the modelling of demand into several models that cover different demand sizes. In this case separate models are constructed for when the expected demand is 0 units, 1 unit, and >1 unit.
2. The combining of the multi-stage model with a state-space model. This has the effect of introducing exponential smoothing and hence some temporal continuity to the modelled demand.
3. The use of a Kalman-filter approach to location of the mode when using a Laplace approximation to approximate a marginal posterior. This third innovation is the most technical, but, for me, also the most interesting.

The first of these innovations is not necessarily that much of a step-change. Other attempts to model slow-moving goods have also considered a mixture of distributions/processes to allow for the zero-inflation that one has in the weekly observed sales of a slow-moving good. Seeger et al use a three stage model, so that we have 3 latent functions, $y_{t}^{(0)}(x)$, which is used in modelling the probability of zero sales at time point t $y_{t}^{(1)}(x)$, which is used in modelling the probability of a single unit being sold at time point t $y_{t}^{(2)}(x)$, which is used in modelling the distribution of units sold at time point t, given the number of units is greater than 1.

The second innovation is an interesting one. Whilst I had come across the use of self-excitation (Hawkes processes) to model the bursty behaviour of intermittent demand, I hadn’t seen temporal continuity enforced via a latent state contribution to the linear predictors of the mixture components. For demand greater than a single unit Seeger et al model the demand ${z_{t}}$ at time point t as following a Poisson distribution, $P\left ( z_{t}-2 | y^{(2)}_{t}\right )\;=\; \frac{1}{(z_{t}-2)!}\lambda( y^{(2)}_{t} )^{z_{t}-2}\exp\left ( -\lambda ( y^{(2)}_{t} )\right )\;\;.$

Here $\lambda(\cdot)$ is a transfer function. The latent function $y^{(2)}_{t}$ depends upon a latent state ${\boldsymbol l}_{t}$ and it is this latent state that is governed by a Kalman filter. Overall the latent process is, $y^{(2)}_{t}\;=\; {\boldsymbol a}^{\top}{\boldsymbol l}_{t-1}\;+\; b_{t}\;\;,\;\;b_{t}\;=\;{\boldsymbol \omega}^{\top}{\boldsymbol x}_{t}\;\;,\;\;{\boldsymbol l}_{t}\;=\;{\boldsymbol F}{\boldsymbol l}_{t-1}\;+\;{\boldsymbol g}_{t}\epsilon_{t}\;\;,\;\;\epsilon_{t}\sim N(0,1)$

The latent variables $\epsilon_{1}, \epsilon_{2},\ldots,\epsilon_{T-1}, {\boldsymbol l}_{0}$ have to be integrated out to yield a marginal posterior distribution that can then be maximized to obtain parameter estimates for the parameters than control the innovation vectors ${\boldsymbol g}_{t}\;,t=1,\ldots,T-1$.

It is the marginalization over $\epsilon_{1}, \epsilon_{2},\ldots,\epsilon_{T-1}, {\boldsymbol l}_{0}$ that the third interesting technical innovation of Seeger et al is concerned with. The integration over $\epsilon_{1}, \epsilon_{2},\ldots,\epsilon_{T-1}, {\boldsymbol l}_{0}$ is approximated using a Laplace approximation. The Laplace approximation simply replaces the exponent of the integrand by its second order Taylor expansion approximation, in order to approximate a complicated integration by an integration of a Gaussian. It is the simplest of a family of saddlepoint expansion techniques for obtaining asymptotic expansions of integrals (see for example the classic book by Wong).

The main task in a Laplace approximation is locating the maximum of the exponent of the integrand. Seeger et al do this via a Newton-Raphson procedure, i.e. expand the exponent to second order around the current estimate of the mode and then find the maximum of that second order approximation.

Consider a 1-dimensional example. Let $q(x)$ be the function whose maximum, $x_{*}$, we are trying to locate. If the expansion of $q(x)$ around our current estimate ${\hat x}_{*}$ of $x_{*}$ is, $q(x) \;=\; q( {\hat x}_{*} )\;+\; ( x - {\hat x}_{*}) q^{(1)}({\hat x}_{*})\;+\; \frac{1}{2}(x- {\hat x}_{*} )^{2}q^{(2)}({\hat x}_{*})\;+\; O\left ( (x-{\hat x}_{*})^{3}\right )$

The updated estimate of $x_{*}$ is then determined by maximizing the second order expansion above, and is given by, ${\hat x}_{*} \rightarrow {\hat x}_{*} \;-\; \frac{q^{(1)}( {\hat x}_{*})}{q^{(2)}( {\hat x}_{*})}$

The schematic below depicts how the iterative Newton-Raphson procedure locates the maximum of a one-dimensional function. The multi-dimensional equivalent update rule when we are maximizing a function $q({\boldsymbol x})$ of a vector ${\boldsymbol x}$ is, $\hat{\boldsymbol x}_{*} \rightarrow \hat{\boldsymbol x}_{*} \;-\; {\boldsymbol H}^{-1}( \hat{\boldsymbol x}_{*})\,\nabla q (\hat {\boldsymbol x}_{*} )\;\;,$

where ${\boldsymbol H}( \hat{\boldsymbol x}_{*})$ is the Hessian of $q({\boldsymbol x})$ evaluated at $\hat{\boldsymbol x}_{*}\;\;.$

As Seeger et al are marginalizing the posterior over $\epsilon_{1}, \epsilon_{2},\ldots,\epsilon_{T-1}, {\boldsymbol l}_{0}$, the Taylor expansion around any point is necessarily multi-variate, and so ordinarily, finding the maximum of that second order approximation would involve inverting the Hessian of the log-posterior evaluated at the current estimate of the mode. As the latent variables we are trying to marginalize over by doing the Laplace approximation are the $T-1$ innovations, $\epsilon_{1},\;\ldots\;, \epsilon_{T-1}$ and ${\boldsymbol l}_{0}$, this means that each step of the Newton-Raphson procedure would involve the inversion of a $T\times T$ matrix, i.e. an $O\left(T^{3}\right)$ operation for each Newton-Raphson step. However, Seeger et al point out that once we have replaced the log-posterior by a second-order approximation, finding the maximum of that approximation is equivalent to finding the posterior mean of a linear-Gaussian state-space model, and this can be done using Kalman smoothing. This means in each Newton-Raphson step we need only run a Kalman filter calculation, an $O\left( T \right)$ calculation, rather than a Hessian inversion calculation which would be $O\left(T^{3}\right)$. When training on, say, 2 years of daily sales data with $T=730$, the speed-up will be significant. Seeger et al do point out that this trick of reducing the computation to one that scales linearly in $T$ is already known within the statistics literature4, but not widely known within machine learning.

Seeger et al apply their methodology to a number of real-world scale datasets, for example to a ~40K item dataset with almost a year of historical data at the day-level. Overall run-times for the parameter learning are impressive (typically a few seconds for each of the separate demand model stages), though admittedly this is when running on a 150 node Spark cluster.

#### References

1. Working, H. (1943) Statistical laws of family expenditure. J. Am. Statist. Ass., 38:43–56.
2. Leser, C. E. V. (1963) Forms of Engel functions. Econometrica, 31, 694–703.
3. Snyder, R., Ord, J., and Beaumont, A. (2012), Forecasting the intermittent demand for slow-moving inventories: A modelling approach. International Journal on Forecasting, 28:485-496
4. Durbin, J. and Koopman, S. (2012), Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods. Oxford Statistical Sciences. Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition.

# Log Partition Function of RBMs

I have been doing some work recently on Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). Specifically, I have been looking at the evaluation of the log of the partition function.

RBMs consist of a layer of visible nodes and a layer of hidden nodes, with the number of hidden nodes typically being less than the number of visible nodes.  Where both visible and hidden nodes have binary states we can think of the RBM as performing a discrete-to-discrete dimensionality reduction. Stacked RBMs provided some of the earliest examples of deep learning neural networks – see for example the work of Hinton and Salakhutdinov. The partition function Z is the normalizing constant for the joint distribution over the states of the visible and hidden nodes, and is often used for model selection, i.e. when we want to control or select the right level of complexity in the RBM.  I wanted to test out some of the ideas behind the message passing algorithm of Huang and Toyoizumi (arxiv version here).  Huang and Toyoizumi use a Bethe approximation to develop a mean-field approximation for log Z. As usual, the self-consistent mean-field equations lead to a set of coupled equations for the expected magnetization, which are solved iteratively leading to the passing of information on local field strengths between nodes – the so-called message passing. To test the Huang and Toyoizumi algorithm I need to know the true value of log Z.

A standard, non mean-field, method for evaluation of the log-partition function is the Annealed Importance Sampling (AIS) algorithm of Salakhutdinov and Murray, who base their derivation on the generic AIS work of Neal (arxiv version). The AIS algorithm is an Monte Carlo based approach and samples from a series of RBMs that go from being completely decoupled (no visible to hidden node interactions) to the fully coupled RBM of interest.

I have pushed my implementations of the Huang and Toyoizumi message passing algorithm and the Salakhutdinov and Murray AIS algorithm to github. However, there is still the question of how do I test the implementations given that there is no simple closed form analytical expressions for log Z when we have visible to hidden node coupling? Fortunately, as the RBMs are of finite size, then for sufficiently small hidden and visible layers we can evaluate logZ ‘exactly’ via complete enumeration of all the states of the visible and hidden layers. I say ‘exactly’ as some numerical approximation can be required when combining terms in the partition function whose energies are on very different scales. I have also included in the github repository code to do the ‘exact’ evaluation.

# China invests big in AI

This week saw interesting news and career guide articles in Nature highlighting Chinese government plans for its AI industry. The goal of the Chinese government is to become a world leader in AI by 2030. China forecasts that the value of its core AI industries will be US\$157.7Billion in 2030 (based on exchange rate at 2018/01/19). How realistic that goal is will obviously depend upon what momentum there already is within China’s AI sector, but even so I was still struck and impressed by the ambition of the goal – 2030 is only 12 years away, which is not long in research and innovation terms. The Nature articles are worth a read (and are not behind a paywall). Nature news article on China’s ‘New Generation of Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’

What will be the effect of China’s investment in AI? Attempting to make technology based predictions about the future can be ill-advised, but I will speculate anyway, as the articles, for me, prompted three immediate questions:

• How likely is China to be successful in achieving its goal?
• What sectors will it achieve most influence in?
• What are competitor countries doing?

How successful will China be?

Whatever your opinions on the current hype surrounding AI, Machine Learning, and Data Science, there tends to a consensus that Machine Learning will emerge from its current hype-cycle with some genuine gains and progress. This time it is different. The fact that serious investment in AI is being made not just by corporations but by governments (including the UK) could be taken as an indicator that we are looking beyond the hype. Data volumes, compute power, and credible business models are all present simultaneously in this current AI/Machine Learning hype-cycle, in ways that they weren’t in the 1980s neural network boom-and-bust and other AI Winters. Machine Learning and Data Science is becoming genuinely commoditized. Consequently,  the goal China has set itself is about building capacity, i.e. about the transfer of knowledge from a smaller innovation ecosystem (such as the academic community and a handful of large corporate labs) to produce a larger but highly-skilled bulk of practitioners. A capacity building exercise such as this should be a known quantity and so investments will scale – i.e. you will see proportional returns on those investments. The Nature news article does comment that China may face some challenges in strengthening the initial research base in AI, but this may be helped by the presence of large corporate players such as Microsoft and Google, who have established AI research labs within the country.

What sectors will be influenced most?

One prominent area for applications of AI and Machine Learning is commerce, and China provides a large potential market place. However, access to that market can be difficult for Western companies and so Chinese data science solution providers may face limited external competition on their home soil. Equally, Chinese firms wishing to compete in Western markets, using expertise of the AI-commerce interface gained from their home market, may face tough challenges from the mature and experienced incumbents present in those Western markets. Secondly, it may depend precisely on which organizations in China develop the beneficial experience in the sector. The large US corporates (Microsoft, Google) that have a presence in China are already main players in AI and commerce in the West, and so may not see extra dividends beyond the obvious ones of access to the Chinese market and access to emerging Chinese talent. Overall, it feels that whilst China’s investment in this sector will undoubtedly be a success, and Chinese commerce firms will be a success, China’s AI investment may not significantly change the direction the global commerce sector would have taken anyway with regard to its use and adoption of AI.

Perhaps more intriguing will be newer, younger sectors in which China has already made significant investment. Obvious examples, such as genomics, spring to mind, given the scale of activity by organizations such as BGI (including the AI-based genomic initiative of the BGI founder Jun Wang). Similarly, robotics is another field highlighted within the Nature articles.

What are China’s competitors investing in this area?

I will restrict my comments to the UK, which, being my home country, I am more familiar with. Like China, the UK has picked out AI, Robotics, and a Data Driven Economy as areas that will help enable a productive economy. Specifically, the UK Industrial Strategy announced last year identifies AI for one of its first ‘Sector Deals’ and also as one of four Grand Challenges. The benefits of AI is even called out in other Sector Deals, for example in the Sector Deal for the Life Sciences.  This is on top of existing UK investment in Data Science, such as the Alan Turing Institute (ATI) and last year’s announcement by the ATI that it is adding four additional universities as partners. In addition we have capacity-building calls from research councils, such as the EPSRC call for proposals for Centres for Doctoral Training (CDTs). From my quick reading, 4 of the 30 priority areas that the EPSRC has highlighted for CDTs make explicit reference to AI, Data Science, or Autonomous Systems. The number of priority areas that will have some implicit dependence on AI or Data Science will be greater. Overall the scale of the UK investment is, naturally, unlikely to match that of China – the original Nature report on the Chinese plans says that no mention of level of funding is made.  However, the likely scale of the Chinese governmental investment in AI will ultimately give that country an edge, or at least a higher probability of success. Does that mean the UK needs to re-think and up its investment?

Notes: